National Testing Agency (NTA) releases the official syllabus of biology for the NEET exam every year. NEET Biology syllabus is consist of two sections named Zoology & Botany. The detailed syllabus of biology, including topics & sub-topics from both the sections, is given here. Class 11 & 12 Biology syllabus for NEET is also separately given here. If you are looking for the NEET biology syllabus PDF, read the full article.
3 Minutes Read, by Sunil Nain
National Eligibility Entrance Test (NEET) is the national level examination conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA). NEET exam is a combination of three subjects i.e. physics, chemistry and biology. Students should prepare all three subjects equally to get a good rank. To get a good score in the NEET exam, knowing the syllabus is the most important thing. We have already discussed the NEET 2022 syllabus in detail in a separate blog. In this article, we will understand the biology syllabus for NEET 2022 exam.
The NEET biology syllabus includes 10 chapters from the Class 11 & Class 12 biology NCERT syllabus. It consists of two parts, i.e. Zoology & Botany. Before discussing the biology syllabus in detail, let us know the importance of Biology in the NEET exam.
- Marks Distribution: - All three subjects (physics, chemistry & biology) are essential; however, the NEET exam pattern is such that Biology carries 360 marks. 90 questions out of 180 questions in the NEET exam are taken from Biology. This marks distribution makes NEET BIOLOGY the most crucial subject.
- Easiest Subject: - Also, previous year paper analysis shows that BIOLOGY is one of the easiest parts of the NEET exam to target as many students find moderate or easy questions.
- Less time taking: - Questions asked in Biology are based on theory. There are no numerical or calculation based questions. So, if a student prepares biology well, he can solve biology questions in 40-45 minutes & can utilize the saved time to solve chemistry & physics questions.
To prepare the BIOLOGY portion well, students need to focus on preparation strategy, essential books and other study tips for doing a smart study to crack the NEET exam. But as we always say, syllabus is the most crucial aspect of any exam. Students should focus on knowing the critical area of any subject to focus on and properly utilize their precious time. We have listed below all the chapters along with sub topics from both class 11 & class 12 NCERT, which are included in the NEET biology syllabus 2022.
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Here is the detailed chapter wise syllabus of NEET 2022 from class 11. Important sub-topics from each chapter are also given.
|S. No||Unit/ Chapter Name||Important Topics|
Diversity in Living World
The Living World: What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life taxonomy and systematics; concepts of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial; nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy- museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Biological Classification: Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids
Plant Kingdom: Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification upto class,
Animal Kingdom: Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).
Structural Organization in Animals and Plants
Morphology of Flowering Plants: Morphology and modifications: Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit.
Anatomy of Flowering Plants: Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems.
Structural Organisation in Animals: Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach)
Cell Structure and Function
Cell-The Unit of Life: Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.
Biomolecules: Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.
Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
Transport in Plants: Movement of water gases and nutrition, cell to cell transport, plant water relations, long-distance transportation of water, transpiration, uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients, diffusion of gases
Mineral Nutrition: Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; metal toxicity, nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration in Plants: Exchange of gases, cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation, TCA cycle and electron transport system, respiratory quotient and amphibolic pathway
Plant - Growth and Development: Seed germination, phases of plant growth, differentiation, differentiation and re-differentiation, sequence of developmental process in plant cell, growth regulators, seed dormancy, vernalization, photoperiodism
Digestion and absorption: Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, caloric value of protein carbohydrates and fats; nutritional and digestive disorders.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals and humans, mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema
Body fluid and circulation: Composition of blood, blood group, cardiac cycle, regulation of cardiac activities, human circulatory system, disorders of circulatory system, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Excretory products and their Elimination: Modes of excretion, human excretory system, roles of other organs in excretion, regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis;dialysis and artificial kidney,
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement, skeletal system and its function, disorders of muscular and skeletal system, disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Neural control and coordination nervous system in Humans: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and Regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.
Check out NEET 2022 Syllabus in Detail.
Explore the detailed syllabus of Class 12 biology for NEET 2022 exam.
|S. No||Unit Name||Important Topics|
Reproduction in Organism: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modesapomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition, lactation
Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT
Genetics and Evolution
Principle of Inheritance and Variation: Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co- dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation. - lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting
Evolution: Origin of life, Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution, mechanism of evolution, gene flow and genetic drift, Hardy - Weinberg's principle, Human evolution.
Biology and Human Welfare
Human Health and Disease: Pathogens, parasites causing human disease, basic concept of immunology - vaccines, cancer, HIV and AIDS, drug and alcohol abuse
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Improvement in food production, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in Human Welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Biotechnology and Its application
Biotechnology - Principles and Process: Genetic engineering
Ecology and environment
Organisms and Population: Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release
Biodiversity and its conservation: Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue
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To know the detailed Biology syllabus might not be sufficient for students to score well in the NEET exam. So, it becomes crucial to see the chapter-wise weightage of Biology in the NEET exam. Students should know the important topics & the chapter from where a maximum number of questions are asked in NEET biology.
The table given below provides insights into different chapters of biology and corresponding weightage. The average number of questions given in the last column is based on the previous years’ trends from the year 2006 onwards up till NEET 2020. Have a look:
|Unit Name||Chapter Name||Questions|
|Diversity in the Living World||The Living World||1|
|Structural Organization in Animals and Plants||Morphology of Flowering Plants||3-4|
|Anatomy of Flowering Plants||3|
|Structural Organization in Animals||2-3|
|Cell Structure and Functions||Cell : The Unit of Life||3-4|
|Cell Cycle and Cell Division||2-3|
|Plant Physiology||Transport in Plants||1|
|Photosynthesis in Higher Plants||2-3|
|Respiration in Plants||1-2|
|Plant Growth and Development||1|
|Human Physiology||Digestion and Absorption||2|
|Breathing and Exchange of Gases||3|
|Body Fluids and Circulation||1-2|
|Excretory Products and their Elimination||2|
|Locomotion and Movement||1-2|
|Neural Control and Coordination||2|
|Chemical Coordination and Integration||2-3|
|Unit Name||Chapter Name||Questions|
||Reproduction in Organisms||2|
|Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants||3-4|
|Genetics and Evolution||Principles of Inheritance and Variation||4-5|
|Molecular Basis of Inheritance||3-4|
|Biology and Human Welfare||Human Health and Disease||3-4|
|Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production||2|
|Microbes in Human Welfare||2-3|
|Biotechnology and its Applications||Biotechnology : Principles and Processes||2|
|Biotechnology and its Applications||3|
|Ecology and Environment||Organisms and Populations||2-3|
|Biodiversity and Conservation||2-3|
The above distribution is just an average number of questions asked from each chapter based on the previous year questions analysis; it may vary in upcoming NEET exams.
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